Vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells are key to protection from SARS-CoV-2

This study is about an analysis on how SARS-CoV-2 vaccination works.  After vaccination, spike-specific CD8+ T cells play an important part in the immediate immune response to breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas the B cell and neutralizing antibody responses come into effect 2 weeks after infection.

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Prior vaccination promotes early activation of memory T cells and enhances immune responses during SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of vaccinated individuals is increasingly common but rarely results in severe disease, likely due to the enhanced potency and accelerated kinetics of memory immune responses. However, there have been few opportunities to rigorously study early recall responses during human viral infection.  To better understand human immune memory and identify potential mediators of lasting vaccine efficacy.  This study used high-dimensional flow cytometry.  The SARS-CoV-2 antigen probes to examine immune responses in longitudinal samples.

Samples collected from vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals for the study

During the Omicron wave, samples collected from vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals.   This study revealed heightened spike-specific responses during infection of vaccinated individuals.  Unvaccinated individuals immune response analyzed to compare spike-specific cluster of differentiation of (CD)4 T cells.  The plasmablasts and CD8 T cells activation was measured during the first week of illness for all individuals.  In contrast, memory B cell activation, neutralizing antibody production and primary responses to nonspike antigens occurred during the second week. Collectively, this data demonstrate the functionality of vaccine-primed immune memory.  It highlight memory T cells as rapid responders during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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About This Journal Article

About this journal article, an opinion by the reviewer.  The writing and graphics fall into the confused scientist bad writing and are horrible.  It took several reading to make sense that the results showed prior vaccination helped the patients.